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kubectl create ns prometheus
helm repo add prometheus-community https://prometheus-community.github.io/helm-charts
helm repo update
helm install prom prometheus-community/kube-prometheus-stack --version 13.13.1 -n prometheus -f values.yaml

# Dashboards
kubectl -n prometheus port-forward statefulset/prometheus-prom-kube-prometheus-stack-prometheus 9090
kubectl -n prometheus port-forward svc/prom-grafana 3000:80

# Get rules. The Prometheus rule configmap is actually stored as a secret and is updated through the operator configurations
kubectl get secret -n prometheus prometheus-prom-kube-prometheus-stack-prometheus -o jsonpath="{.data['prometheus\.yaml\.gz']}" | base64 -d | gunzip

Access now:

The values.yaml file is default just with following components disabled: <syntaxhighlightjs lang="yaml"> defaultRules: ## Create default rules for monitoring the cluster

 create: false

alertmanager: ## Deploy alertmanager

 enabled: false

kubeApiServer: ## Component scraping the kube api server

 enabled: false

kubelet: ## Component scraping the kubelet and kubelet-hosted cAdvisor

 enabled: false

coreDns: ## Component scraping coreDns. Use either this or kubeDns

 enabled: false

kubeDns: ## Component scraping kubeDns. Use either this or coreDns

 enabled: false

kubeEtcd: ## Component scraping etcd

 enabled: false

kubeScheduler: ## Component scraping kube scheduler

 enabled: false

kubeProxy: ## Component scraping kube proxy

 enabled: false


Metrics merging

Envoy sidecar can merge Istio’s metrics with the application metrics, this is enabled by default --set meshConfig.enablePrometheusMerge=true. When enabled, appropriate prometheus.io annotations will be added to all data plane pods to set up scraping. The merged metrics will be scraped from /stats/prometheus:15020.

# Default way to set deployment to be scraped by Prometheus
#  template:
#    metadata:
#      annotations:
#        prometheus.io/path: /stats/prometheus
#        prometheus.io/port: "15020"
#        prometheus.io/scrape: "true"

# Check if an application emits any metrics. You get 404 if no metrics being emitted.
kubectl exec -it deploy/httpbin -n default -c istio-proxy -- curl http://localhost:15020/metrics

# Check the sidecar proxy
kubectl exec -it deploy/httpbin -n default -c istio-proxy -- curl http://localhost:15090/stats/prometheus

# View merged metrics, note :15020 port; which include any potential metrics from httpbin (none here) and its envoy sidecar and Istio agent
kubectl exec -it deploy/httpbin -n default -c istio-proxy -- curl http://localhost:15020/stats/prometheus

Grafana Istio dashboards

Get the dashboards from the Istio source repo.

git clone https://github.com/istio/istio
cd manifests/addons

# Create istio-dashboards configMap
kubectl -n prometheus create cm istio-dashboards \
--from-file=pilot-dashboard.json=dashboards/pilot-dashboard.json \
--from-file=istio-workload-dashboard.json=dashboards/istio-workload-dashboard.json \
--from-file=istio-service-dashboard.json=dashboards/istio-service-dashboard.json \
--from-file=istio-performance-dashboard.json=dashboards/istio-performance-dashboard.json \
--from-file=istio-mesh-dashboard.json=dashboards/istio-mesh-dashboard.json \

# Label this 'istio-dashboards' configmap for Grafana to pick it up
kubectl label -n prometheus cm istio-dashboards grafana_dashboard=1

New set of dashboards should appear in UI. These will be empty as we haven's set any metrics to be scraped.

Setup Prometheus to scrape metrics

We will use the Prometheus Operator CRs ServiceMonitor and PodMonitor. These Custom Resources are described in good detail in the design doc on the Prometheus Operator repo.

Scrape Istio control-plane <syntaxhighlightjs lang=yaml> kubectl apply -f <(cat <<EOF apiVersion: monitoring.coreos.com/v1 kind: ServiceMonitor metadata:

 name: istio-component-monitor
 namespace: prometheus
   monitoring: istio-components
   release: prom


 jobLabel: istio
 targetLabels: [app]
   - {key: istio, operator: In, values: [pilot]}
   any: true
 - port: http-monitoring
   interval: 15s

EOF ) --dry-run=server </syntaxhighlightjs>

Scrape Istio data-plance <syntaxhighlightjs lang=yaml> kubectl apply -f <(cat <<EOF apiVersion: monitoring.coreos.com/v1 kind: PodMonitor metadata:

 name: envoy-stats-monitor
 namespace: prometheus
   monitoring: istio-proxies
   release: prom


   - {key: istio-prometheus-ignore, operator: DoesNotExist}
   any: true
 jobLabel: envoy-stats
 - path: /stats/prometheus
   interval: 15s
   - action: keep
     sourceLabels: [__meta_kubernetes_pod_container_name]
     regex: "istio-proxy"
   - action: keep
     sourceLabels: [__meta_kubernetes_pod_annotationpresent_prometheus_io_scrape]
   - sourceLabels: [__address__, __meta_kubernetes_pod_annotation_prometheus_io_port]
     action: replace
     regex: ([^:]+)(?::\d+)?;(\d+)
     replacement: $1:$2
     targetLabel: __address__
   - action: labeldrop
     regex: "__meta_kubernetes_pod_label_(.+)"
   - sourceLabels: [__meta_kubernetes_namespace]
     action: replace
     targetLabel: namespace
   - sourceLabels: [__meta_kubernetes_pod_name]
     action: replace
     targetLabel: pod_name

EOF ) --dry-run=server </syntaxhighlightjs>


Install Kiali operator

kubectl create ns kiali-operator
helm install \
    --set cr.create=true \
    --set cr.namespace=istio-system \
    --namespace kiali-operator \
    --repo https://kiali.org/helm-charts \
    --version 1.29.1 \
    kiali-operator \

Install Kiali instance with Kiali CR. The installation below uses Token Auth, if you wish to use OIDC as well. <syntaxhighlightjs lang=yaml> kubectl apply -f <(cat <<EOF apiVersion: kiali.io/v1alpha1 kind: Kiali metadata:

 namespace: istio-system
 name: kiali


 istio_namespace: "istio-system"  
   prometheus: prometheus
   strategy: token
   - '**'
   image_version: operator_version
     cache_duration: 10
     cache_enabled: true
     cache_expiration: 300
     url: "http://prom-kube-prometheus-stack-prometheus.prometheus:9090"

EOF ) --dry-run=server

kubectl -n istio-system port-forward deploy/kiali 20001 </syntaxhighlightjs>

Create ServiceAccount and ClusterRoleBinding for Token Auth

kubectl create serviceaccount kiali-dashboard -n istio-system
kubectl create clusterrolebinding kiali-dashboard-admin --clusterrole=cluster-admin --serviceaccount=istio-system:kiali-dashboard

# Get the token
kubectl get secret -n istio-system -o jsonpath="{.data.token}" $(kubectl get secret -n istio-system | grep kiali-dashboard | awk '{print $1}' ) | base64 --decode

Load Testing - fortio

Fortio (Φορτίο) started as, and is, Istio's load testing tool and now graduated to be its own project. Fortio runs at a specified query per second (qps) and records an histogram of execution time and calculates percentiles (e.g. p99 ie the response time such as 99% of the requests take less than that number (in seconds, SI unit)).

# Install
VERSION=$(curl --silent "https://api.github.com/repos/fortio/fortio/releases/latest" | jq -r .tag_name); echo $VERSION
curl -L https://github.com/fortio/fortio/releases/download/${VERSION}/fortio-linux_x64-${VERSION#v}.tgz \
 | sudo tar -C / -xvzpf -

# or the debian package
wget https://github.com/fortio/fortio/releases/download/${VERSION}/fortio_${VERSION#v}-1_amd64.deb
dpkg -i fortio_${VERSION#v}-1_amd64.deb

# or the rpm
rpm -i https://github.com/fortio/fortio/releases/download/${VERSION}/fortio-${VERSION#v}-1.x86_64.rpm

# Docker run
docker run -p 8080:8080 -p 8079:8079 fortio/fortio server & # For the server
docker run fortio/fortio load http://www.google.com/        # For a test run