Actions

Windows Powershell

From Ever changing code

ISE - PowerShell IDE

Untitled.ps1 - when working in ISEv2 or v4 in a script edit section, you can select code and press F8 to execute it
$_ - substitute a singular record in array
-eq, -or -and - dash means operator

Test network connection

Testing from PowerShell if NFS port on remote server is open. The test takes around 5 seconds, them prints output.

PS C:\> Test-NetConnection -ComputerName 10.1.20.1 -Port 2049
ComputerName           : 10.1.20.1
RemoteAddress          : 10.1.20.1
RemotePort             : 2049
InterfaceAlias         : Ethernet
SourceAddress          : 10.1.10.111
PingSucceeded          : True
PingReplyDetails (RTT) : 2 ms
TcpTestSucceeded       : True

PowerShell of linux commands

Tail
PS1 C:\> Get-Content -Path "C:\scripts\test.log" -Wait -Tail 100
$ tail -f /mnt/c/scripts/test.log
Curl
PS1 C:\> (Invoke-WebRequest -Headers @{"Host"="api.example.com"} -Uri http://127.0.0.1:8080 -UseBasicParsing).statuscode
PS1 C:\>  Invoke-RestMethod -Headers @{"Host"="api.example.com"} -Uri http://127.0.0.1/healthcheck                                   
$ curl --header 'Host: api.example.com' http://127.0.0.1/
Wget
#Optional enable latest TLS, by default it uses TLS1.0, use 'Ssl3' in edge cases
PS1 C:\> [Net.ServicePointManager]::SecurityProtocol = "tls12, tls11, tls" 
PS1 C:\> Invoke-WebRequest https://github.com/Example/package.zip -OutFile package.zip
$ wget https://github.com/Example/package.zip -OutFile package.zip
Troubleshooting
Error: The request was aborted: Could not create SSL/TLS secure channel. - set SecurityProtocol

Set a hostname

# ideally this should be up to 15 chars long to fit NetBios name otherwise it will be truncated
Rename-Computer -NewName server-1-eu -restart

Windows features

List installed features

PS C:> DISM /online /get-features /format:table
Deployment Image Servicing and Management tool
Version: 6.3.9600.17031
Image Version: 6.3.9600.17031
Features listing for package : Microsoft-Windows-ServerCore-Package~aaaaaaaaaae35~amd64~~6.3.9600.16384
----------------------------------------------------------- | --------
Feature Name                                                | State
----------------------------------------------------------- | --------
NetFx4ServerFeatures                                        | Enabled
NetFx4Extended-ASPNET45                                     | Enabled

Install Windows feature

nfs-client

PS C:\> Get-WindowsFeature *nfs*
Display Name                                Name                       Install State
------------                                ----                       -------------
[ ] Server for NFS                          FS-NFS-Service                 Available
[ ] Client for NFS                          NFS-Client                     Available
[ ] Services for Network File System Man... RSAT-NFS-Admin                 Available

PS C:\> Install-WindowsFeature NFS-Client -IncludeAllSubFeature -IncludeManagementTools
Success Restart Needed Exit Code      Feature Result
------- -------------- ---------      --------------
True    No             Success        {Client for NFS}


Other features, confirmed Windows Server Base 2019 | AWS

Install-WindowsFeature -name Web-Server -IncludeManagementTools #IIS

Install Hyper-V feature

Verified: Windows 10 Pro

Optional: Setup the Disk to allow the hypervisor

# BCDEDIT /Set `{current`} hypervisorlaunchtype auto


Install Hyper-V feature

Enable-WindowsOptionalFeature -Online -FeatureName Microsoft-Hyper-V -All #PS1
DISM /Online /Enable-Feature /All /FeatureName:Microsoft-Hyper-V          #CMD

Restart is required


Allow Hyper-V and VirtualBox to coexist by creating Windows Boot entries

Hyper-V is enabled during boot process, so creating a additional BCDEDIT entry will be the solution. Open PS in Admin mode, and run as follows:

C:>bcdedit /copy {current} /d "Windows 10 - No hypervisor"
The entry was successfully copied to {ade52f12-1207-11e9-ad93-f3c1556fc814}.
C:>bcdedit /set {ade52f12-1207-11e9-ad93-f3c1556fc814} hypervisorlaunchtype off #use guid from the previous command output
The operation completed successfully.

In order to access the new boot menu:

  • restart and hold down shift on the keyboard while clicking Restart with the mouse
  • on a boot menu select Use another operating system > Windows 10 - No hypervisor


Anoter option is to enable/disable Hyper-V feature

  1. Open the command prompt as an Administrator.
  2. Run the command with no argument: bcdedit
  3. After you run the above command, you will see that the property hypervisorlaunchtype is set Auto by default.
  4. Disable Hyper-V by running the command: bcdedit /set hypervisorlaunchtype off
  5. Restart your PC system to use VirtualBox.
  6. To turn Hyper-V back on, run the command: bcdedit /set hypervisorlaunchtype auto
  7. You will need to reboot the system to use Hyper-V.

Download a file

Bits transfer

Windows has background service to download files. The admin console is called bitsadmin where equivalent Powershell cmdlets are *-BitsTransfer

$tmpPath="C:\tmp"
If (-Not (Test-Path $tmpPath -pathType container)) { md $tmpPath }
$tentacle_url="https://octopus.com/downloads/latest/WindowsX64/OctopusTentacle"
$tentacle_file="tentacle_install.msi"
Start-BitsTransfer -Source $tentacle_url -Destination $tmpPath\$tentacle_file
WriteOutput "BitsTransfer - success: $?"


The important downside is that you cannot use BitsTransfer with:

  • schedule job unless you tick "Run when Logged in"
  • AWS Windows user_data scripts


This is by design it requires interactive session. From docs "BITS transfers files only when the job owner is logged on and a network connection (LAN or modem) is established. BITS processes the transfer job using the security context of the job owner. The user who created the job is considered the owner of the job. However, a user with administrator privileges can take ownership of another user's job."

System.Net.WebClient

A common .NET class used for downloading files is the System.Net.WebClient class.

$WebClient = New-Object System.Net.WebClient
$WebClient.DownloadFile("http://mirror.filearena.net/pub/speed/SpeedTest_128MB.dat","C:\tmp\file.zip")

#Or one-liner
$url="http://mirror.filearena.net/pub/speed/SpeedTest_128MB.dat"
$file="C:\tmp\file.zip"
(New-Object System.Net.WebClient).DownloadFile($url, $file)

Install an application

This is usually done using msiexec it will start installing a software in background. To have better control of it, eg. running configuration task for this software straight after installation. You can use cmd start or Powershell cmdlet Start-Process with -Wait option. It will start separate process (for eg. software installation) and wait until completed.

$tmpPath="C:\tmp"
$splunk_forwarder_file=""
Start-Process msiexec.exe -ArgumentList "/i $tmpPath\$splunk_forwarder_file RECEIVING_INDEXER=splunk.acme.com:9997 DEPLOYMENT_SERVER=splunk.acme.com:8089 AGREETOLICENSE=Yes", "/quiet" -Wait
#Without -wait, following commands fail as Splunk Forwarder would not be fully installed
C:\"Program Files"\SplunkUniversalForwarder\bin\splunk set servername       ${tf_hostname} -auth admin:changeme
C:\"Program Files"\SplunkUniversalForwarder\bin\splunk set default-hostname ${tf_hostname} -auth admin:changeme


Please pay attention to a way how arguments to application msiexec.exe have been passed in "/i app.exe apparg1 apparg2", "/quiet"

References

Modules

Load ActiveDirectory module to have access to AD, pre-requirement to execute most commands below

Import-Module -Name ActiveDirectory

Create a big file

fsutil file createnew big1k 1024       # 1Kb, filled in with Null
fsutil file createnew big1g 1073741824 # 1Gb

Schedule task

Create a schedule task that runs on a powershell script on boot, then disables itself.

$schAction = New-ScheduledTaskAction `
  -Execute "Powershell.exe" `
  -WorkingDirectory C:\ProgramData\Amazon\EC2-Windows\Launch\Scripts `
  -Argument '-NoProfile -WindowStyle Hidden -NoLogo -NonInteractive -c "powershell .\TentacleRegister.ps1 -verbose >> .\TentacleRegisterScheduleTask.log 2>&1"'

$schTrigger   = New-ScheduledTaskTrigger   -AtStartup
$schPrincipal = New-ScheduledTaskPrincipal -UserId "NT AUTHORITY\SYSTEM" -LogonType ServiceAccount -RunLevel Highest

Register-ScheduledTask -Action $schAction -Trigger $schTrigger -TaskName "RegisterTentacle" -Description "Register OctopusDeploy" -Principal $schPrincipal

#Create .ps1 script
$TentacleRegisterFileContent = @'
$TentaclePath="C:\Program Files\Octopus Deploy\Tentacle"
if (-Not (Test-Path $TentaclePath -pathType container)) { Write-Output "Octopus path not found"; exit 1 }
cd $TentaclePath
.\Tentacle.exe create-instance --instance $env:computername --config "C:\Octopus\Tentacle.config" --console
.\Tentacle.exe new-certificate --instance $env:computername --if-blank --console
.\Tentacle.exe configure       --instance $env:computername --reset-trust --console
.\Tentacle.exe configure       --instance $env:computername --home "C:\Octopus" --app "C:\Octopus\Applications" --port "10933" --console
.\Tentacle.exe configure       --instance $env:computername --trust ${tf_octopus_fingerprint} --console
netsh advfirewall firewall add rule "name=Octopus Deploy Tentacle" dir=in action=allow protocol=TCP localport=10933
$localIP=(Invoke-RestMethod http://169.254.169.254/latest/meta-data/local-ipv4)
.\Tentacle.exe register-with   --instance $env:computername `
   --server "https://deploy.contactengine.net" --apiKey="${tf_octopus_token}" `
   --role   "microservices" --environment "${tf_octopus_environment}" `
   --comms-style TentaclePassive -h $localIP --force --console
.\Tentacle.exe service --instance $env:computername --install --stop --start --console

#Disable/delete scheduled task
#Unregister-ScheduledTask -TaskName "RegisterTentacle" -Confirm:$false
Disable-ScheduledTask     -TaskName "RegisterTentacle"
'@

What is worth to note re-direction -Argument '-NoProfile -WindowStyle Hidden -NoLogo -NonInteractive -c "powershell .\TentacleRegister.ps1 -verbose >> .\TentacleRegisterScheduleTask.log 2>&1"' that allows to log execution STD and STDERR to a file. Please note that most of the schedule task scripts run in SYSTEM user context. Then it's also important that the task name match here RegisterTentacle

Extract from Active Directory

get-aduser -Filter {Samaccountname -eq "Smith"} -properties Organization
get-aduser -Filter {(Givenname -eq "Smithy") -and (Surname -eq "Smith")} 

# Build array $users with all Samaccountname(loginnames) with additional properties: Name, Description
$users = get-aduser -Filter {Samaccountname -like "*"} -properties Name, Description

# Return array object count
$users.count

# Search array $users where $_ each object in array field samaccountname has a given string
$users | Where-Object {$_.samaccountname -eq "string_to_compare"}

# Build array of enabled and disabled accounts in AD where field Enabled equal $true ($true boolean is 1 $false is 0)
$enabledusers  = $users | Where-Object {$_.Enabled -eq $true }
$disabledusers = $users | Where-Object {$_.Enabled -eq $false}

# Filter array $disabledusers returning only Samaccountname, GivenName, Surname and display (ft = Format-table)
$disabledusers | Select-Object Samaccountname, GivenName, Surname | ft -AutoSize

# Build create new array from filter of $users array if name or description contains a string
$aausers = $users | Where-Object {( $_.Name -like "*aa*") -or ($_.Description -like "*bb*")}
$aausers | Select-Object Samaccountname, GivenName, Surname, Enabled | Sort-Object Enabled | ft -AutoSize

# Print a table with records matching $aauser if another AD account has the same name and surname
foreach ($aauser in $aausers) {
  $realuser = [array](get-aduser -Filter {((Givenname -eq $aauser.Givenname) -and (Surname -eq $aauser.Surname))}) 
  write-host $aauser.samaccountname "|" $aauser.name "|"  $aauser.enabled "|"$realuser[0].SamAccountname "|"$realuser[0].GivenName"|" $realuser[0].Surname"|" $realuser[0].Enabled
}

# Build array with GivenName, Surname that match filter of: Enabled field is false  (disabled account)
$temp = Get-ADUser -Properties GivenName, Surname -filter {Enabled -eq $false}

# Export the array to CSV file
$temp | Export-Csv temp.csv

AD Extract 2

$reportdate = Get-Date -Format yyyyMMdd-HHmm 
$csvreportfile = "ADUsers-extract-$reportdate.csv" 
Get-ADUser -SearchBase "OU=Users,DC=corp,DC=local" -Filter * -ResultSetSize 5000 | Get-ADUser -Properties * | 
          select SamAccountName,EmailAddress,Givenname,Surname,Title,Department,Enabled | 
          Export-Csv -Path $csvreportfile -NoTypeInformation

Create users from csv

Csv file BulkAddADUsers.csv

Name,GivenName,Surname,SamAccountName,UserPrincipalName,EmailAddress,AccountEnabled,AccountPassword,PasswordNeverExpires,Path
Full Name,Firstname,Surname,fsurname,fsurname@example.com,fsurname@example.com,$true,PassWord123,$true,"OU=Users,OU=Testing ,OU=USA,DC=corp-example,DC=io"

BulkAddADUsers.ps1

# CSV headline: Name,GivenName,Surname,SamAccountName,UserPrincipalName,EmailAddress,Enabled,AccountPassword,PasswordNeverExpires,Path
# Script            - CSV headline
# Name              - first+last name
# GivenName         - first name
# Surname           - last name
# SamAccountName    - username
# UserPrincipalName - it is user-logon-name, where you need to choose domain, eg. test@example.com or @corp-example.io
# Path - object location, use get-aduser <SamAccountName>

Import-Csv .\BulkAddADUsers.csv | % { `
New-ADUser -Name $_.Name -GivenName $_.GivenName -Surname $_.Surname -SamAccountName $_.SamAccountName `
  -UserPrincipalName $_.UserPrincipalName -EmailAddress $_.EmailAddress `
  -Enabled $true -AccountPassword (ConvertTo-SecureString $_.AccountPassword -AsPlainText -force) `
  -PasswordNeverExpires $true -Path $_.Path
}
#errors
#-Enabled cannot read $true value from CSV therefore it has been hard coded

Get membership of a user

Get-ADPrincipalGroupMembership username| select name

IIS - create a website

Tested on Server 2012 R2 Data Centre in Azure

$SiteName    = "WWW"
$AppPoolName = "WWWAppPool"
$SiteFolder  = Join-Path -Path 'C:\inetpub\wwwroot' -ChildPath $SiteName
$LogDir      = "d:\Logs\iis_logs\$SiteName"
$HostHeader  = "www.example.com"

Import-Module WebAdministration
# create appPool
if(-Not (Test-Path IIS:\AppPools\$AppPoolName)) { New-WebAppPool -Name $AppPoolName -Force }
# create Site 
if(-Not (Test-Path $SiteFolder -pathType container)) { md $SiteFolder }
New-WebSite    -Name $SiteName -PhysicalPath $SiteFolder -Force -ApplicationPool $AppPoolName
Get-WebBinding -Name $SiteName -Port 80 | Remove-WebBinding
New-WebBinding -Name $SiteName -Protocol http -Port 80   -IPAddress * -HostHeader $HostHeader 
New-WebBinding -Name $SiteName -Protocol http -Port 8080 -IPAddress * -HostHeader $HostHeader 
# Logging dir
if (-Not (Test-Path $LogDir -pathType container)) { md $LogDir }
Set-ItemProperty "IIS:\Sites\$SiteName" -name logFile.directory -value $LogDir
Start-WebSite  -Name $SiteName

File content

$hostsFileContent = @"
127.0.0.1 example.com
127.0.0.1 example.local 
"@

Add-Content -Path "c:\Windows\System32\drivers\etc\hosts" -Value $hostsFileContent
Set-Content -Path "c:\Windows\System32\drivers\etc\hosts" -Value $hostsFileContent

References