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Difference between revisions of "Linux multi window terminal Screen and Tmux"

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(Key bindings)
(Key bindings)
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== Key terms ==
 
== Key terms ==
* window -it's a separate window that you can switch between
+
* '''window''' - it's a separate window that you can switch between
* region -your terminal screen can be divided in regions where each can hold multiple windows
+
* '''region''' - your terminal screen can be divided in regions where each can hold multiple windows
  
 
== Useful commands and key bindings ==
 
== Useful commands and key bindings ==
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| I have window list in the status line
 
| I have window list in the status line
 
|-
 
|-
| <code>Ctrl+a <code>Ctrl+a</code>
+
| <code>Ctrl+a</code>
 
| previous window viewed
 
| previous window viewed
 
|  
 
|  
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= Tmux =
 
= Tmux =
 +
== Sessions, windows, panes ==
 +
Tmux is a so-called terminal multiplexer. Simply speaking, tmux acts as a window manager within your terminal1 and allows you to create multiple windows and panes within a single terminal window. Within one terminal window you can open multiple windows and split-views (called “panes” in tmux lingo). Each pane will contain its own, independently running terminal instance. This allows you to have multiple terminal commands and applications running visually next to each other without the need to open multiple terminal emulator windows.
 +
 +
 +
The server holds sessions and the windows and panes within them:
 +
* '''session''' - is a set of windows, plus a notion of which window is current,there may be multiple sessions on a server,
 +
* '''window''' - is a single screen covered with panes, each session may have many separate windows that you can switch between
 +
* '''pane''' - is a rectangular part of a window that runs a specific command, e.g. a shell
 +
 +
:[[File:ClipCapIt-190810-144653.PNG]]
 +
 +
== Install Tmux ==
 
;Install - linux - use package manager
 
;Install - linux - use package manager
 
* <source lang="bash" inline>sudo apt-get install tmux</source>
 
* <source lang="bash" inline>sudo apt-get install tmux</source>
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* Install [https://github.com/git-for-windows/build-extra/releases Git for Windows SDK]
 
* Install [https://github.com/git-for-windows/build-extra/releases Git for Windows SDK]
 
* <source inline>run /bin/pacman -S tmux</source>
 
* <source inline>run /bin/pacman -S tmux</source>
 
== Sessions, windows, panes ==
 
Tmux is a so-called terminal multiplexer. Simply speaking, tmux acts as a window manager within your terminal1 and allows you to create multiple windows and panes within a single terminal window. Within one terminal window you can open multiple windows and split-views (called “panes” in tmux lingo). Each pane will contain its own, independently running terminal instance. This allows you to have multiple terminal commands and applications running visually next to each other without the need to open multiple terminal emulator windows.
 
 
*'''session''' is a set of windows, plus a notion of which window is current.
 
*'''window''' is a single screen covered with panes. (Once might compare it to a ‘virtual desktop’ or a ‘space’.)
 
*'''pane''' is a rectangular part of a window that runs a specific command, e.g. a shell.
 
 
  
 
;Quick Start
 
;Quick Start
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*<code>C^b Up,Down,Left,Right arrow</code> move to neighbouring pane
 
*<code>C^b Up,Down,Left,Right arrow</code> move to neighbouring pane
 
*<code>C^b 0-9</code> move to the window based on index
 
*<code>C^b 0-9</code> move to the window based on index
*<code>C^b {}</code> swap panes { to left or to } right swap
+
*<code>C^b {} []</code> swap panes {} left-right [] -up-down swap
 
*<code>C^b ,</code> rename the current window
 
*<code>C^b ,</code> rename the current window
 
*<code>C^b d</code> detach the current session
 
*<code>C^b d</code> detach the current session

Revision as of 17:38, 11 August 2019

Screen allows for multi window connection using a single ssh session. It also allows to detach from the session screen while still running a remote session.

Screen

sudo apt-get install screen

Key terms

  • window - it's a separate window that you can switch between
  • region - your terminal screen can be divided in regions where each can hold multiple windows

Useful commands and key bindings

$ screen -ls   #list detached sessions
$ screen -r    #re attach


Quick start
  • C^a c create new prompt
  • C^a tab move to a next window
  • C^a | split vertically
  • C^a S split horizontly
  • C^a \ kill all windows, terminate any ssh sessions and exit GNU Screen program


Key bindings
Key Action Notes
Ctrl+a c new window
Ctrl+a n next window I bind F12 to this
Ctrl+a p previous window I bind F11 to this
Ctrl+a " select window from list I have window list in the status line
Ctrl+a previous window viewed
Ctrl+a S split terminal horizontally into regions Ctrl+a c to create new window there
Ctrl+a | split terminal vertically into regions Requires screen >= 4.1
Ctrl+a :resize resize region
Ctrl+a :fit fit screen size to new terminal size Ctrl+a F is the same. Do after resizing xterm
Ctrl+a :remove remove region Ctrl+a X is the same
Ctrl+a tab Move to next region
Ctrl+a d detach screen from terminal Start screen with -r option to reattach
Ctrl+a A set window title
Ctrl+a x lock session Enter user password to unlock
Ctrl+a [ enter scrollback/copy mode Enter to start and end copy region. Ctrl+a ] to leave this mode
Ctrl+a ] paste buffer Supports pasting between windows
Ctrl+a > write paste buffer to file useful for copying between screens
Ctrl+a < read paste buffer from file useful for pasting between screens
Ctrl+a ? show key bindings/command names Note unbound commands only in man page
Ctrl+a : goto screen command prompt up shows last command entered

Scroll back - a copy mode

In GNU Screen press Ctrl + a + [ or C^a C^ESC to enter Copy Mode, then scroll PgUp/PgDown or up/down using keys j or k. Use Enter key to start and end selection coping to registry/buffer. Below are some other navigation keys:

h -    Move the cursor left by one character
j -    Move the cursor down by one line
k -    Move the cursor up by one line
l -    Move the cursor right by one character
0 -    Move to the beginning of the current line
$ -    Move to the end of the current line.
G -    Moves to the specified line
       (defaults to the end of the buffer).
C-u -  Scrolls a half page up.
C-b -  Scrolls a full page up.
C-d -  Scrolls a half page down.
C-f -  Scrolls the full page down.
PgUp / PgDown - Scrolls a page up/down

Define scrollback buffer size start screen with the following key (5000 lines in this example):

screen -h 5000

Update: You can use activate copy mode of GNU Screen also by Ctrl + Esc that might be more useful than Ctrl + a + [ shortcut (thanks to Yu-Jie Lin for this tip).

Custom configuration

By default the config is kept in ~/.screenrc file but using -c option we can pass a custom config

~$ screen -c screen-4regions.screen

Example of a config file:

~$ cat screen-4regions.screen
layout FourScreens    #it's a new feature, makes screen aware of regions layout
# Region 0
screen -t mail1-queue     #creates new terminal/prompt
select 0                  #select window0
stuff "echo Window0^M"    #echo a string between quotes, ^M translates to EOL means enter-return key
stuff "sshpass -p 'password' ssh -o PubkeyAuthentication=no root@example.com^M"  #ssh interactively
 
split      #split horizontally
split -v   #split vertically

# Region 1 
select 1
focus #get focus on a selected region
screen -t mail2-queue sshpass -p 'password' ssh -o PubkeyAuthentication=no root@example.com
                      #create a new terminal/prompt '''-t mail2-queue''' in the focus window and
                      #executes the command
stuff "echo Window1^M"

# Region 2
select 2
focus
screen -t mail1
stuff "echo Window2^M"

split -v

# Region 3
select 3
focus
screen -t mail2
stuff "echo Window3^M"

altscreen on                                                                                       
term screen-256color                                                                               
bind ',' prev                                                                                      
bind '.' next                                                                                      
#                                                                                                  
#change the hardstatus settings to give an window list at the bottom of the                        
#screen, with the time and date and with the current window highlighted                            
hardstatus alwayslastline                                                                          
#hardstatus string '%{= kG}%-Lw%{= kW}%50> %n%f* %t%{= kG}%+Lw%< %{= kG}%-=%c:%s%{-}'              
hardstatus string '%{= kG}[ %{G}%H %{g}][%= %{= kw}%?%-Lw%?%{r}(%{W}%n*%f%t%?(%u)%?%{r})%{w}%?%+Lw%?%?%= %{g}][%{B} %m-%d %{W}%c %{g}]'
#layout save default   #makes regions saved when you re-attach a session

Tmux

Sessions, windows, panes

Tmux is a so-called terminal multiplexer. Simply speaking, tmux acts as a window manager within your terminal1 and allows you to create multiple windows and panes within a single terminal window. Within one terminal window you can open multiple windows and split-views (called “panes” in tmux lingo). Each pane will contain its own, independently running terminal instance. This allows you to have multiple terminal commands and applications running visually next to each other without the need to open multiple terminal emulator windows.


The server holds sessions and the windows and panes within them:

  • session - is a set of windows, plus a notion of which window is current,there may be multiple sessions on a server,
  • window - is a single screen covered with panes, each session may have many separate windows that you can switch between
  • pane - is a rectangular part of a window that runs a specific command, e.g. a shell
ClipCapIt-190810-144653.PNG

Install Tmux

Install - linux - use package manager
  • sudo apt-get install tmux
Install - Windows
Quick Start
/usr/bin/tmux

Key bindings

  • C^b c create a window aka new virtual desktop, it creates a full size window on top of your panes
  • C^b " split a pane horizontly
  • C^b % split a pane vertically
  • C^b z full screen pane resize, repeat to get back
  • C^d close a pane, also type 'exit'
  • C^b Up,Down,Left,Right arrow move to neighbouring pane
  • C^b 0-9 move to the window based on index
  • C^b {} [] swap panes {} left-right [] -up-down swap
  • C^b , rename the current window
  • C^b d detach the current session
  • C^b D gives you a choice what session you wish to detach
Screen navigation, scroll and search
Function                     vi              emacs
--------                     --              -----
Half page down               C-d             M-Down
Half page up                 C-u             M-Up
Next page                    C-f             Page down
Previous page                C-b             Page up
Scroll down                  C-Down or C-e   C-Down
Scroll up                    C-Up or C-y     C-Up
Search again                 n               n
Search again in reverse      N               N
Search backward              ?               C-r
Search forward               /               C-s

Copy mode default Emacs style

C^b,[       # enter copy mode
# navigate to beginning of text, you want to select
C^Space     # to activate highlighting
# move around using arrow keys to select region
Alt+w       # copy the region
C^b,]       # paste the selection

Managging sessions

tmux new -s database #start new session named 'database'
tmux ls              #lists all detached sessions
tmux attach -t 0     #attach to terminal 0 session
tmux rename-session -t 0 database
tmux switch         -t <session_name>
tmux kill-session   -t <session_name>
Key bindings
  • C-b :new<CR> new session
  • C-b $ name session
  • C-b ( previous session
  • C-b ) next session
  • C-b L 'last' (previously used) session
  • C-b s choose a session from a list

Terminator

Terminator is user frendly, gui scalable terminal with layouts, multi windows, tabs and broadcast function

$ sudo apt install terminator

Useful key bindings

Alt+Arrow      Move to another terminal
C^+Shift+X     Maximise current window, press again to revert
C^+Shift+Z     Zooms the current terminal, press again to revert
C^+Shift+O     Split terminals Horizontally.
C^+Shift+E     Split terminals Vertically.
C^+Shift+Arrow Resize windows by moving parent dragbar
C^+Shift+T     Open new tab
C^+Shift+PgUp  Switch between tabs, PgDown in reverse order
C^+Shift+W     Close the current terminal.
C^+Shift+Q     Quit terminator
C^+Plus (+)    Increase  font  size. Note: this may require you to press shift, depending on your keyboard
C^+Minus(-)    Decrease font size. Note: this may require you to  press  shift
C^+Zero        Restore font size to original setting.
Super+G        Group all
Super+Shift+G  Ungroup all

Windows ComEmu

References